As a humanitarian organization, the ICRC worked to provide protection and assistance to war victims and did not play the role of a commission of enquiry or of a statistics bureau during the Second World War. It thus never tried to compile statistics on the victims of the Nazi concentration camps, nor certified the accuracy of statistics produced by third parties.
The allegations attributing to the ICRC the paternity of an estimated number of victims are thus falsified information and have been categorically and systematically denied by the institution since Website of the Arolsen International Tracing Service. For the duration of the conflict, the Agency was in charge of the centralization of all information related to the fate of imprisoned or missing soldiers and its communication to their relatives.
The publication documents its internal organization, the information it received on prisoners of war and the statistics produced by its various departments on their activities. As the conflict assumed ever-increasing proportions and the number of prisoners of war and civilian internees multiplied, the ICRC carried out large-scale relief actions for their benefit. With numerous illustrations and photographs, a publication titled Relief for prisoners of war and civilian internees describes the preparation, content and transport of relief parcels by the institution.
Audiovisual documents from the ICRC archives related to prisoners of war and civilian internees during the Second World War photos, 7 films and videos. Requests for research about the fate of individual prisoners of war and civilian internees can be addressed to the affiliated service. For more information and contact details, see the following presentation of the service and the webpage Researching victims of conflict.
ICRC delegates visit U.
From to , the Joint Relief Commission of the International Red Cross provided assistance to the civilian populations victims of the war. Composed of representatives of the International Committee and the League, this commission worked in collaboration with National Red Cross Societies to send out relief supplies mainly food, clothes, medical and pharmaceutical supplies to the affected populations.
An electronic version of its final activity report published in is available here , describing in detail both its action and the obstacles it faced.
Other publications by the commission include the activity reports published in , , and as well as the description of relief actions for children and women victims of the war , children in Serbia , and parcels for prisoners of war intellectual relief , glasses and dental prostheses Relief to the Greek Islands, Chio. The summer of marks the beginning of a terrible famine in occupied Greece. Founded under the leadership of the ICRC in the fall, a dedicated commission worked to collect and distribute food to the Greek population.
See online photographs retracing its activities in Greece photos and beyond photos. In the early hours of August 6 th , an American bomber dropped the first atomic bomb in history over Hiroshima, leaving the city in ruins and decimating its population. ICRC report on the effects of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. On August 29 th , the ICRC delegate Fritz Bilfinger was among the first foreigners to ever witness the devastation wrought by the atomic bomb in Hiroshima.
The next day, he sent a telegram to the ICRC delegation in Tokyo describing the horrific conditions and calling for immediate relief action. His report, dated October 24 th , details the effects of the atomic bomb, as he witnessed them a mere three weeks after the attack. This text found among his personal papers after his death offers a striking testimony of the horrors he witnessed.
Hiroshima after the explosion of the atomic bomb : audiovisual documents from the ICRC archives 60 photos. Nuclear weapons raise fundamental questions which go to the very heart of international humanitarian law and of Red Cross assistance activities.
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Sixty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the author describes how the ICRC still combats the development and use of weapons of mass destruction. Hiroshima hospital director Michihiko Hachiya gives a day to day account of the two months that followed the bombing and of his work to help the victims in the devastated city. Collections of digitized archival materials related to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Harry S. In this telling, the White Witness becomes a war correspondent, reporting on the civil war between black and black. This is the war the White Witness will tell you about, one focused on dysfunction and hopelessness, and told with the veneer of impartiality, because to tell it like this is to ensure the White Witness is only the correspondent, and never an active player.
The topic of the day was the 26 January protests, in which tens of thousands of Aboriginal people and allies shut down the Melbourne CBD to protest over a day that for blackfellas has always represented invasion and genocide. They get no education. What have you done? It is most of the Aboriginal elder women who are desperate for help, and they are not getting it. Where are these people on one day of the year.
Stynes was denied a response by the other white woman on the panel, but the fury on social media, particularly from Aboriginal people, was immediate. Lowanna Gibson wrote an open letter on news. Control of the dialogue, control of the broader narrative, and ultimately attempting control of the way Indigenous people are seen and received by their audience and broader Australia. Hildebrand became the stereotypical White Witness—the war correspondent Black Australia did not know we needed.
Like all war correspondents in Aboriginal affairs, his credentials, although shaky, are more than enough to grant him legitimacy over any Black Witness. In my own country, Darumbal people were murdered by the waterways and chased off the cliffs, all in the name of white prosperity.
Just one example is the massacre at Glenmore Station in Rockhampton in Birkbeck called the Native Police, and the next day the force rounded up and killed 18 Darumbal people, burying them in a mass grave. That would come as news to any frontier wars historian. From , the force reported directly to the Colonial Secretary now ruling the new colony from Brisbane. Under this administration they received a renewed injection of resources and political support, operating as a standing death squad for the next 50 years across the Queensland Frontier.
Two women and a young girl were set aside, while another young girl was given to Yintiyantin, an Aboriginal stockman whose country was further south and who worked on the Myall Creek station.
Two boys escaped by jumping into the creek. George Anderson, hut keeper at Myall Creek station, later described the terror of the Wirrayaraay people as they were led away and slaughtered. Afterwards, their bodies were piled up and burned. The remains of at least 28 corpses were later observed at the site, but the final death toll has never been confirmed.
Conspiracies of silence usually shrouded massacres of Aboriginal people and perpetrators were rarely punished. The Supreme Court trials that followed the Myall Creek massacre were therefore exceptional, firstly because of the final outcome the execution of British subjects , and secondly because of the wealth of information that the court transcripts preserved detailing the events leading up to the massacre and the legal proceedings.
The process of justice was initiated by three individuals who reported the event: station manager William Hobbs, local police superintendent Thomas Foster, and settler Frederick Foot. Gipps instructed the Muswellbrook police magistrate Edward Denny Day to investigate. On visiting the site and discovering partially burned bone fragments, Day took depositions from 19 witnesses. These depositions provided the grounds on which Day arrested 11 of the 12 perpetrators and transferred them to the Sydney Gaol for trial. The only free settler among the perpetrators, Hawkesbury-born John Fleming, fled and evaded capture.
The first trial set out to establish that murder had been committed at Myall Creek and that the accused were guilty of this crime. At the conclusion of the trial, none of the witnesses, such as the Myall Creek hut keeper George Anderson, could swear that the remains of the large body was that of the Wirrayaraay Elder, Daddy. However, Attorney-General Plunkett declared dissatisfaction with the verdict and kept the prisoners in gaol pending trial on new charges and using different evidence, this time indicting the prisoners for the murder of a Wirrayaraay child.
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Given the high level of negative attention that the first trial received in the press, it became increasingly difficult to assemble a jury that would turn up to court let alone remain impartial. Indeed, ferocious arguments were taking place throughout the colony as to whether a fair trial could be held at all. The second trial officially began on 29 November, yet a large number of men who had been called for jury service failed to turn up.
Plunkett asked the judge to fine them harshly. Once a full jury was present, the trial began.
Seven of the defendants were tried by a new judge, William Burton. At the conclusion of the second trial, all of the seven men were found guilty and sentenced to public execution. Although the four remaining defendants John Blake, James Lamb, George Palliser and Charles Toulouse were to be prosecuted at a trial in which Yintayintin would give eyewitness testimony, this never took place — Yintayintin disappeared under mysterious circumstances and the four surviving perpetrators walked free in February The colonial community of New South Wales was more outraged by the execution of British citizens than they were by the massacre of the Wirrayaraay people.
The fate of the escaped settler, John Henry Fleming, reveals much about the culture and society of the colony of New South Wales at this time.
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The obituary of Fleming published in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette in testifies to the long and rich life that he enjoyed after the massacre. The privileged status that settlers enjoyed in the colony at this time enabled Fleming to escape, hide and reintegrate into society, despite the atrocities for which he was responsible being so well known and there being a lucrative reward for his capture. In contrast, William Hobbs, one of the three men who reported the massacre, lost his position with Dangar and had great difficulty finding subsequent employment.